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Living with Wildlife in Anchorage - - Chapter 4, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. This chapter describes the state of Anchorage's wildlife in 1. It begins with a list of. The chapter also provides information about residents' general. It concludes with a section on wildlife conflict statistics and. Wildlife Issues and Concerns.
The following list summarizes issues and concerns developed by the planning team with input from. The items are meant to be evocative of the issues discussed at meetings, not. They are organized within categories that roughly correspond. Chapter 3). Habitat and Population Level Issues. Habitat fragmentation and loss due to increasing development. Impacts (disturbance) to species from increasing human use on public land.
Loss of wetlands and wildlife corridors. Wildlife habitat concerns that do not become integrated into land use decision- making.
Current development trends that favor exotic species (pigeons, starlings, etc.). Loss of critical habitat for some species (loons, cranes, other wetland species, etc.). Milf And Swingers Free Photos Port Macquarie read more. Lack of wildlife- related inventory data (population trends, biological carrying. Wildlife Recreation and Learning Issues. High interest in and demand for viewing opportunities by residents and visitors.
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Need for more wildlife education (facilities and interpretation services and materials)Demand for increased Anchorage hunting opportunities. Wildlife Conflict Prevention and Response Issues. Lack of information about human/wildlife conflicts (When, where, why, how many, what kind?)Concern about the number of moose- vehicle accidents.
Concern about the number of aggressive moose encounters in neighborhoods and on trails. Concern about the extent of landscaping damage by moose. Concern about the number of and potential for bear- human encounters on area trails and in neighborhoods. Increasing attraction behavior by bears in response to garbage, dog food, and birdseed around homes. Goose- aircraft accident risk. Concern about the amount of goose droppings in parks, ball fields, lakes and on lawns Liability concerns regarding human/wildlife conflicts.
Agency responsibilities and jurisdictions for responding to wildlife- human conflicts. Educating residents (especially new residents) on appropriate behavior around wildlife. Lack of coordinated government/organizational programs to reduce wildlife conflicts. Lack of training of public safety officials to deal with wildlife conflicts. Conflicts between domestic animals/pets and wildlife. Concern about landscaping that attracts wildlife and exacerbates conflicts (at schools, along roads)Concern that salmon fishery development may be attracting bears into the city.
Concern about other conflict problems: pigeons, gulls, beaver, coyotes, wolves, etc. Other Issues. Need to promote the benefits of wildlife in the city. Lack of recognition of wildlife benefits within some government agencies.
Need to integrate wildlife agency decision- making among multiple agencies at local, state, and federal level. A Summary of Anchorage's Wildlife. This section describes the state of Anchorage's wildlife by species or group.
For each major. species or group, we attempt to provide population estimates and trends, as well as short. When available, citations and sources for. In most cases, however, information is based on. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. This information is not necessarily definitive, and is offered to provide readers with a general.
Anchorage. Actions in this plan are designed to address the lack. This section also suggests population goals for several species, in an attempt to identify those. Establishing a population goal that is lower than current. These population goals simply. Additional. discussion of population management policies and actions is given in. Throughout this section, the “Anchorage area” refers to the entire Municipality from.
Knik River to Portage, including Chugach State Park. In contrast, the “Anchorage Bowl”. Chugach foothills to Cook Inlet, and from Potter Marsh to the military. Fort Richardson, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Chugach State Park, Eagle. River/Chugiak/Peters Creek, or Turnagain Arm communities.
Readers should also note that fish and other aquatic species are not included within the scope. Chapter One, Plan Limitations). General Biodiversity. Overall, the Anchorage area supports 5. Scher, 1. 99. 3). That's about half of the bird species recorded in the whole state.
Anchorage has one native amphibian species (the wood frog), and no reptiles. There are also a. Black Bears. An estimated 2. Anchorage area (between the Knik. River and Portage), including Chugach State Park.
Perhaps one- third of these bears spend at least. Anchorage Bowl, Eagle River/Chugiak. Girdwood. Black bears in Anchorage prefer forested habitat, including steam corridors. Judging. by the number of cubs, the black bear population is probably increasing; this is further supported. ADF& G from residents, which have sharply increased in recent years.
Black bears can easily become attracted to human food sources such as trash, pet food, and birdseed. Anchorage residents. Brown Bears. About 6.
Anchorage area, and four or five are. Anchorage Bowl or other developed. Eagle River/Chugiak or Girdwood). However, subdivisions are expanding rapidly into. Chugach State Park, particularly in Eagle River, along Hiland Road, and on.
Hillside. Large lots and dense natural vegetation allow bears to use these subdivisions without. Brown bears are generally likely to avoid humans and human environments, but can also. They are. also occasionally attracted to the Anchorage Bowl by winter- killed moose, abundant moose calves in. Because of their size and potential aggressiveness, brown. The number of both black and brown bears in the Anchorage area has increased in the last three.
Black bear hunting. Eagle River valley, in the Anchorage Bowl (south of Tudor Road), and in adjacent.
Chugach State Park in 1. Black bear hunting in the rest of the Municipality allows only. Brown bear hunting has been prohibited in Chugach State Park and. Anchorage Bowl since 1. Moose. The moose population in and around Anchorage has remained high since the 1. Municipality (including Chugach State Park) in 1.
In the Anchorage. Bowl, moose are also abundant, with approximately 2. The winter moose come from adjacent areas (Fort Richardson, Elmendorf Air Force. Base, and the mountains east of town in Chugach State Park). In Anchorage, moose are concentrated in. The Anchorage moose population is controlled primarily through starvation, vehicle collisions. Despite this, moose populations appear to be rising again to the peak levels that were experienced.
At that time, there were an estimated 2,1. Anchorage area and probably over. Anchorage Bowl. This was followed by a sharp decline during the harsh. In recent years, habitat in many areas also appears. Fort Richardson and in the Anchorage Bowl. From 1. 99. 4. to 1. Anchorage. area each year, with the high year being 1.
About 1. 00 moose are harvested annually in local hunts, most of which occur on the military. Moose are symbolically linked with Anchorage (the town mascot used by the Convention and Visitor's. Bureau is a moose named “Seymour”), and they provide residents and visitors with. However, they are also a hazard to drivers. Certain human behaviors toward moose (e. People. have been stomped to death by moose in Anchorage (in 1.
There is concern among some trail users (particularly dog mushers). ADF& G has to destroy. Dall Sheep. Sheep are numerous in Chugach State Park (which has an estimated population of. Anchorage Bowl. Sheep generally.
Chugach Mountains, but will visit lower elevations to access mineral deposits. One mineral lick, at Windy Point on the Seward Highway, has become a popular sheep viewing area, but traffic congestion at this relatively undeveloped site affects the quality and safety of viewing opportunities. Planned highway and viewing facility improvements (as advocated in the actions section of this plan) are likely to address some of these problems.
Sheep populations in the park and at the Windy Point viewing area appear to be stable. Mountain Goats. In addition to Dall sheep, there are also an estimated 2. Chugach State Park, with over 5. Municipality east of the Park.
Mountain goats live in steep alpine terrain, and are less likely to be seen along roads or on the slopes above the Anchorage Bowl. The goat population appears to be increasing slowly. Beaver. The number of beavers in the entire Municipality is unknown, but there are an estimated 1. Anchorage Bowl. Beavers live along area streams, which are largely within publicly- owned parklands and greenbelts or on the military bases. Beaver activity provides important benefits to salmon and water quality.
Their ponds create rearing and overwintering habitat for juvenile salmon; provide invertebrates, trapped organics, and other nutrient input including spawned- out salmon carcasses essential to the food web of the stream; and help water quality by allowing fine sediments to settle out. Large woody debris and ponds add complexity to a stream, which is vital to healthy fish habitat. Beavers occasionally cause damage on developed or private lands by cutting down trees or building dams that cause flooding. The beaver population in Anchorage appears to be stable.
Wolves. There are four or five packs (a total of 2. Anchorage Municipality, and two packs active in the Anchorage Bowl (about 1. Wolves can inhabit a wide variety of terrain, and may have huge territories. In Anchorage, wolves appear to be relatively adept at avoiding humans, but may still be involved in some conflict situations. For example, wolves appear to kill up to about five dogs each year in the Anchorage area (although most of these dogs are found to have been running free).
Wolf populations in Anchorage appear to be stable at this time. Other Furbearers and Small Mammals. A variety of other furbearers are present in the Municipality of Anchorage, including wolverine, coyote, lynx, snowshoe hare, red fox, mink, weasel, and marten. Other small mammals include porcupine, red squirrels, northern flying squirrels, hoary marmot, little brown bat, and mice, voles, and shrews. See Appendix C for complete list of mammals.). Coyote and red fox numbers are unknown, but they appear to be stable or increasing, based on sightings.
Lynx populations fluctuate in cycles with snowshoe hare populations, and appear to number 1. Anchorage Bowl in 1. Lynx sightings in Chugach State Park appear to be increasing in the past two years. There is generally little trapping of these species in the Anchorage area. Feral Rabbits. There are probably hundreds of feral rabbits in the Anchorage Bowl, all descended from tame rabbits released by humans.
Adept at surviving in urban and suburban environments, they appear to be increasing. They are currently not a threat to native snowshoe hares through competition or interbreeding. Snowshoe hares number in the thousands and also appear to be stable within a cyclic population range.) However, feral rabbits may transmit diseases, they do compete with snowshoe hares, and they can create property damage with their burrows and feeding habits.
Loons. Anchorage is the largest city in North America with nesting loons, and up to thirteen pairs of loons attempt to nest each year on city lakes (Fair, 1. This includes up to seven pairs of Pacific loons (most on lakes in the Anchorage Bowl) and up to six pairs of common loons (most on lakes on the two military reservations). Although there are 4. In the period from 1. Since 1. 99. 4, an average of 4. Pacific loons have fledged an average of 2. The Pacific loon reproductive rate is lower than necessary to sustain the local population (an estimated 0.
Both of these breeding populations are vulnerable to local extirpation because of their low current numbers and geographic isolation from other loon populations. Both of these species have been identified by the planning team as needing greater protection and management attention to prevent future population losses. Anchorage is the largest city in North America with nesting loons.
Habitat conservationand measures to prevent disturbance appear necessary to maintain these populations. This is a common loon. Pacific loons, with gray head and bright throat patch, also nest in Anchorage. Grebes. Anchorage lakes also support breeding populations of both red- necked and horned grebes, although the latter are much less common or prolific in this area. Like loons, horned grebes appear to be more sensitive to human disturbance while nesting, and population stability may require habitat conservation or enhancement efforts. Cranes. Sandhill cranes nest and raise young along the coast and in remaining large, open wetland areas. They can be sensitive to disturbance during nesting and migration.
Crane populations in Anchorage appear to be stable at this time, but have probably declined from mid- century when development levels were lower and there were more extensive wetlands. Canada Geese. Geese began nesting in Anchorage in the early 1.
There are several subspecies of Canada geese. Most Anchorage geese are lesser Canada geese. Geese both feed and stage in Anchorage, and prefer habitat that features available grass adjacent to open water. Summer goose population levels have grown to about 4,6. Geese are a significant threat to aircraft (an Air Force plane crashed in 1. Geese can also become a nuisance around lakes and at parks, ball fields, and golf courses.
Their feces make areas unattractive to many people and may contribute to the dispersion of a parasite that causes swimmer's itch. Chapter 5 contains a section summarizing the extensive management efforts associated with this species. Mallards and Other Waterfowl. Like Canada geese, mallards and some other waterfowl species have increased in the Anchorage area in recent years. Based on the Audubon Society's Christmas Bird Count (CBC), about 3,0.
Anchorage area each winter. Most of these live in the Bowl, and are attracted by human hand- outs and open water. The mallard population is generally increasing, but may have dropped for a year or two after a 1. Dating Place In Manila read more. Spenard Road side of Westchester Lagoon. In more recent years, population numbers have returned to about 3,0.
This high mallard population contributes to the nuisance problems identified with geese. Waterfowl are attracted to the area's lakes, streams, and wetlands, but the wetlands have significantly decreased since the 1. Ducks and geese are hunted in the Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge, with about 1,0. Other waterfowl that migrate through Anchorage include swans, northern pintail, goldeneyes, mergansers, green- winged teal, bufflehead, scaups, and several other duck species. Additional information about waterfowl species and their abundance is needed for Anchorage, and actions in this plan are designed to increase our knowledge.
Shorebirds. Forty species of shorebirds have been recorded in the Municipality (Scher, 1. Anchorage Bowl. Other species, including Hudsonian godwits, may occasionally breed in the area (C. Maack, personal communication, 1. Because considerable wetlands in the Bowl have been drained since 1. L. Tibbitts, personal communication, 1. Retention of remaining wetlands within the Bowl will help ensure persistence of breeding species; protection of nesting areas from human disturbance may also be important and is addressed through recommended actions in this plan.
Many other shorebirds depend on the wetlands and upper Cook Inlet mudflats during spring and fall migration. Species that migrate through in high numbers include short- billed dowitchers, Hudsonian godwits, greater and lesser yellowlegs, and least and pectoral sandpipers.
In general, population levels of migrants seem to be stable at this time but protection of tidal areas remains critical (L. Tibbitts, personal communication, 1. B. Andres, personal communication, 1. Gulls and Terns. Eighteen species of gulls and terns have been recorded in the Municipality (Scher 1. During the last two decades, numbers of glaucous- winged and herring gulls increased dramatically, overtaking numbers of the smaller mew gull which was formerly the most common gull in Anchorage. Retention of wetlands within the Bowl, particularly the Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge, can help maintain populations of other species, such as Arctic tern, which are less adaptable to urban environments. Arctic terns nest in Anchorage wetland areas such as Potter Marsh.
Protection of remaining wetlands is critical to maintain these and other birds, such as shorebirds and less common gull species. Glaucous- winged and herring gulls adapted easily to the increase in human garbage available in Anchorage, and are commonly seen at dumpsters. Although population surveys have not been conducted, biologists have counted more than 1. Anchorage each spring. Large gulls become nuisances by vigorously defending nests on roofs and other structures, destroying roofing, fouling water, spreading avian diseases, and increasing nest predation on other birds.
In 1. 99. 9 natural resource agencies received more calls complaining about gulls than about any other birds. The USDA Wildlife Services program had contracts with 1.
Municipality removed gull nests from several problem areas. Elimination of waterfowl feeding, and better attention to covering dumpsters, might help reduce the numbers and problems associated with large gulls.
Bald Eagles. There are probably dozens of bald eagles resident in the Municipality, and there are at least 9 nesting pairs in the Anchorage Bowl, with higher population numbers in winter. Eagles generally live and feed along streams, lakes, or the coast, but eagles occasionally scavenge human trash in Anchorage, particularly in winter. The eagle population in Anchorage appears to be stable or increasingly slightly. Hawks. Thirteen species of hawks have been recorded in the Anchorage Bowl (Scher 1.
Although quantitative data are not available on population trends for these species, forest- dwelling birds, including sharp- shinned hawk, northern goshawk, red- tailed hawk and merlin, have likely declined due to forest fragmentation caused by urban development. Populations of alpine- breeding species such as golden eagle, northern harrier and gyrfalcon have probably remained unchanged, because their habitat has not been altered by human development. Owls. Seven species of owls have been recorded in the Anchorage Bowl (Scher 1. Resident species include the forest- dwelling great horned owl, boreal owl, and northern saw- whet owl. Boreal owls have likely declined as forests have been cut for development during the past three decades.
Forest loss may not have affected great horned owls as much, because they use forest openings, which may actually increase as forests are fragmented. The Anchorage population status of the little saw- whet owl is uncertain, and is currently under study (B. Dittrick, personal communication, 1. Snowy owls, great gray owls, northern hawk owls and short- eared owls reside in the area in winter or during migration, although northern hawk owls may also occasionally nest in the Municipality. Migratory Songbirds and Other Small Land Birds.
Anchorage supports year- round resident songbirds as well as many migratory species that arrive in the spring to breed. Other species occur here occasionally.
Over 9. 0 species of land birds have been recorded in the Anchorage Bowl (see Appendix C for list of most common species). About 5. 8 species, including the 2. Scher, 1. 99. 3). This group includes families such as kingfishers, woodpeckers, flycatchers, jays and ravens, swallows, chickadees, thrushes, warblers, sparrows and finches. Townsend's warbler, with olive black and a mask of mustard yellow and black, is one of Anchorage's most striking songbirds. The male's singsong voice is heard from the tops of mature spruce trees from late May to early July. This banded bird is part of a study to determine effects of the recent bark beetle infestation on this spruce- dependent species.